Objectives The term temporomandibular disorders (TMD) includes several conditions characterized by signs and symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, or both. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of this group of disorders.
Materials and methods Computer retrieval was performed with Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus. Terms used for the search were “Temporomandibular Joint Disorders” [Mesh]) AND “Facial Pain” [Mesh], restricted to english language, reviews and clinical trials.
Results and discussion Out of 328 papers retrieved, 47 were selected and categorized according to the following classes: etiology, controversial causes, clinical findings, differential diagnosis, treatment. Three clinical entities resulted from the search and were discussed: articular disorders, muscular disorders, and chronic pain.
Conclusions The available evidence suggests that an accurate diagnosis based on history and clinical evaluation is the gold standard in managing TMD. The treatment should be conservative, reversible and non-invasive, whenever possible.
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